T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM3) is a member of immunoglobulin (Ig) and mucin domain (TIM) family, comprised of type-I cell surface glycoproteins. TIM3 expressed on interferon (IFN)-gamma (γ) secreting helper T (Th) cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD8 + T cells, Dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and other leukocyte subsets, including natural killer (NK) cells. TIM3 plays a key role in inhibiting both adaptive and innate immune responses, potentially exerting either positive or negative effects, thus acting as an immune modulator. In chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders, and some cancers, TIM-3 is upregulated on several other hematopoietic cell types. The different roles of TIM3 probably depend on the different cells expressing this receptor and on the various immunologic profiles of the tumor microenvironment. High expression of Tim-3 on effector T cells indicates T cell exhaustion, showing inhibited proliferation and TNF-α and IFN-γ secretion. Binding of TIM-3 to a protein ligand (e.g., galectin-9) can inhibit the Th1 response via mechanism of apoptosis induction through calcium-calpain-caspase-1 pathway, and therefore lead to such as induction of peripheral tolerance. While on activated T cells, CEACAM1 and Tim-3 are co-expressed and form a heterodimer to suppress T cell function and down regulate its anti-tumor immunity.
6 mL (RTU), 10 mL (RTU), 1 mL(Conc.), 0.5 mL (Conc.), 200 tests – Xmatrx Elite, 50 tests – Xmatrx Elite, 5 slides – Xmatrx, 5 slides – Manual