Prolactin is known to be a protein hormone that promotes lactation in mammals. Present in the anterior region of the pituitary gland, it has the ability to promote lactation in response to the suckling stimulus of hungry young mammals. The protein hormone Prolactin is almost always associated solely with the pituitary gland but worth noting, is the fact that it is also synthesized within the central nervous system, the immune system, the uterus and its associated tissues of conception, and even the mammary gland itself. Moreover, its biological actions are not limited solely to reproduction because it has been shown to control a variety of behaviors and even play a role in homeostasis. Prolactin also plays a role in carcinogenesis especially Breast and Prostate cancers as a result of increased Prolactin receptors. The similarity of prolactin with growth hormone and its actions through the growth-promoting JAK/STAT pathway suggest its tumor-promoting effects. When the production of prolactin in blood is elevated it leads to a condition known as Hyperprolactinemia. Using Immunohistochemistry staining, the Prolactin protein hormone is seen in the cytoplasm of anterior lobe cells of Pituitary tissues.
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