The human alpha globin gene cluster located on chromosome 16 spans about 30 kb and includes seven loci: 5′- zeta – pseudozeta – mu – pseudoalpha-1 – alpha-2 – alpha-1 – theta – 3′. The alpha-2 (HBA2) and alpha-1 (HBA1) coding sequences are identical and only differ slightly over the 5′ untranslated regions and the introns (although they differ significantly over the 3′ untranslated regions). Two alpha chains plus two beta chains constitute HbA, which in normal adult life comprises about 97% of the total hemoglobin; alpha chains combine with delta chains to constitute HbA-2, which with HbF (fetal hemoglobin) makes up the remaining 3% of adult hemoglobin. A reduction in the production of normal alpha globin chains results in inherited hematologic disorders such as alpha thalassemia whereby there is an increase in beta chains to compensate for the lack of normal alpha globin chains. This alters the physiology of the red blood cell and results in the characteristic clinical and/or laboratory findings of the four types of alpha thalassemia. Pregnant persons with alpha thalassemia are considered a high risk given the dangers the disease poses to the mother and her unborn child. Along with Hemoglobin beta subunits, Hemoglobin A has been researched and found to be one of the serum biomarkers for diagnosis in ovarian cancer. The Hemoglobin A protein is expressed in lymphatic organs such as spleen and bone marrow. In spleen tissues, the hemoglobin alpha protein is expressed in the cytoplasm of red pulp cells and in bone marrow tissues it is expressed in the cytoplasm of hematopoietic cells.
|Tissue Type/Cancer Type|
0.5 mL – Manual – Concentrate, 1 mL – Manual – Concentrate, 6 mL – Manual – RTU, 50 Tests – Automation – Xmatrx, 100 Tests – Automation – i6000, 200 Tests – Automation – Xmatrx, 5 slides – Xmatrx, 5 slides – Manual