CD105 (Endoglin) is a type 1 integral membrane protein with a large extracellular matrix. There are two alternatively sliced forms of Endoglin, S-Endoglin and L-Endoglin. Endoglin acts as an auxiliary receptor for the TGF-beta family of protein. These proteins have various roles in different physiological processes such as cellular proliferation and angiogenesis. Endoglin is expressed at low levels in endothelial cells, but highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells at sites of active angiogenesis such as tumor vessels, inflamed tissues, healing wounds, psoriatic skin, inflamed synovial arthritis, vascular injuries and during embryogenesis. With insufficient supply of blood, tumor cells will undergo apoptosis/necrosis. Given its distinct tissue distribution and its known functional integration with the TGF-? system, it is not surprising that Endoglin is involved in angiogenesis.
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